Links to General Science Information

This site is FREE. No sign up. Just study and enjoy. There is a lot of material here so take your time.

1. 
INTRODUCTION
 

What is chemistry?

Order this book for an EASY way to learn CHEMISTRY.hemistry
is the study of matter and the interactions among different types of matter. 
Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.  The first step in
learning more about chemistry is to read as much as you  can on your areas of interest.  The book “Chemistry
– The Easy Way”
is an example of a “very low cost – almost free” guide to get you started.  However, you can study chemistry at this web site totally free. You do not have to purchase anything. Use the menu chart above and start by studying ATOMS, and ELEMENTS. Then take a look at BASIC CHEMISTRY and follow it as an outline for studying the other subjects in the top menu table above. Go through all the topics in the menu table above, one at a time. Above all make it fun and interesting for yourself.  Take your time, don’t rush.

Chemistry has four major areas of interest and many sub-specialties.

1.  Organic
Chemistry –
The study of the element carbon and its compounds including
living matter.


2.  Inorganic
chemistry –
The study of all other elements of non-living matter.


3.  Analytical
chemistry –
The study of ” What is it?” or qualitative
chemistry and “How much is there?”  which is quantitative
chemistry.  Analytical chemistry is the analysis of compounds. 


4.  Physical
Chemistry –
The quantitative aspects of the physical properties of
substances and their relationship to chemical structure and composition.


– – – – A few sub-specialties in chemistry are:

Biochemistry – The
study of biologically active substances.


Polymer chemistry – The chemistry of long chained molecules.

Solid state chemistry – The
behavior of solids.

Organometallic chemistry
The chemistry of compounds in which a metal is bonded in an organic
compound.


o Liquid Crystal Chemistry

o Medicinal Chemistry

o Geochemistry

o Polymer Chemistry

o Photochemistry

o Materials Chemistry

o Electrochemistry

o Catalysis

o Physical Chemistry

o Spectroscopy

o Industrial and Applied
Chemistry

o Separation Science and
Chromatography

o Surface and Colloid Science

o Interfacial Chemistry

o Fuels And Petrochemicals

o Natural Product Chemistry

And so forth . . . . .

Start by getting familiar with the ATOM:


 

Then get familiar with may different types of atoms and the periodic chart of atoms:

 


More on groups of atoms:


 



CHEMISTRY 
TUTORIALS 

Free online chemistry
tutorials 

   Rader’s
Chemistry 4 Kids
by Chem4Kids.com

CHEM4KIDS – Chemistry
Research destination

Chemistry
Tutorial
by University of Arizona

Review the
basics of chemistry you’ll need to know to study biology.

Large
Molecules
by University of Arizona

Learn about
structures and properties of sugars, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides, as
well as macromolecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides.

Acids
& Bases
by University of Arizona

Learn about the
solvent properties of water, pH, pKa and buffering capacity.



Clinical Correlates of pH Levels
by University of Arizona

Learn how
metabolic acidosis or alkalosis can arise and how these conditions shift the
bicarbonate equilibrium. The body’s compensatory mechanisms and treatment
options are also discussed.

B12/Folate by University of Arizona

Learn which
biological reactions require either B12 or folate (or both); what the
consequences of a deficiency in either vitamin are, and the important step in
which B12 and folate metabolism overlap.

 Energy,
Enzymes, and Catalysis
by University of Arizona

Familiarize
yourself with some key principles about enzymes, catalysis, and energy that are
central to a subsequent study of metabolic pathways.

Metabolism by University of Arizona

Develop a basic
understanding of some of the fundamental concepts of metabolism.

Carbohydrate
Metabolism Regulation
by University of Arizona

Learn about the
regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by insulin, glucagon and epinephrine,
mainly in liver and muscle.

Photosynthesis
1
by University of Arizona

Study the
conversion of light energy into different forms of chemical energy during
photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis
2
by University of Arizona

Review the
location and overall reactions of carbohydrate biosynthesis during
photosynthesis, and understand the metabolic differences between C3 and C4
plants.

An
Introduction to Surface Chemistry
by Dr. Roger Nix

Structure of
Metallic Surfaces,  Adsorption of Molecules on Surfaces, The
Langmuir Isotherm, UHV & Effects of Gas Pressure, Surface Analytical
Techniques, Overlayer Structures & Surface Diffraction, Surface Imaging
& Depth Profiling

An
Overview of Chemistry
by EncycloZine

Chemistry is
the branch of science concerned with the properties, structure, and composition
of substances and their reactions with one another. There are two main
divisions, organic and inorganic.

COMPREHENSIVE LIST OF FREE CHEMISTRY VIDEOS


  1. Introduction to the atom
  2. Orbitals
  3. More on orbitals and electron configuration
  4. Electron Configurations
  5. Electron Configurations 2
  6. Valence Electrons
  7. Groups of the Periodic Table
  8. Periodic Table Trends: Ionization Energy
  9. Other Periodic Table Trends
  10. Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonds
  11. Molecular and Empirical Formulas
  12. The Mole and Avogadro’s Number
  13. Formula from Mass Composition
  14. Another mass composition problem
  15. Balancing Chemical Equations
  16. Stoichiometry
  17. Stoichiometry: Limiting Reagent
  18. Ideal Gas Equation: PV=nRT
  19. Ideal Gas Equation Example 1
  20. Ideal Gas Equation Example 2
  21. Ideal Gas Equation Example 3
  22. Ideal Gas Example 4
  23. Partial Pressure
  24. States of Matter
  25. States of Matter Follow-Up
  26. Specific Heat, Heat of Fusion and Vaporization
  27. Chilling Water Problem
  28. Phase Diagrams
  29. Van Der Waals Forces
  30. Covalent Networks, Metallic, and Ionic Crystals
  31. Vapor Pressure
  32. Suspensions, Colloids and Solutions
  33. Solubility
  34. Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Supression
  35. Introduction to Kinetics
  36. Reactions in Equilibrium
  37. Mini-Video on Ion Size
  38. Keq Intuition (mathy and not necessary to progress)
  39. Keq derivation intuition (can skip; bit mathy)
  40. Heterogenous Equilibrium
  41. Le Chatelier’s Principle
  42. Introduction to pH, pOH, and pKw
  43. Acid Base Introduction
  44. pH, pOH of Strong Acids and Bases
  45. pH of a Weak Acid
  46. pH of a Weak Base
  47. Conjugate Acids and Bases
  48. pKa and pKb Relationship
  49. Buffers
  50. Strong Acid Titration
  51. Weak Acid Titration
  52. Half Equivalence Point
  53. Titration Roundup
  54. Introduction to Oxidation States
  55. More on Oxidation States
  56. Hydrogen Peroxide Correction
  57. Redox Reactions
  58. Galvanic Cells
  59. Types of Decay
  60. Half-Life
  61. Exponential Decay Formula Proof (can skip, involves Calculus)
  62. Introduction to Exponential Decay
  63. More Exponential Decay Examples
  64. Macrostates and Microstates
  65. Quasistatic and Reversible Processes
  66. First Law of Thermodynamics/ Internal Energy
  67. More on Internal Energy
  68. Work from Expansion
  69. PV-diagrams and Expansion Work
  70. Proof: U=(3/2)PV or U=(3/2)nRT
  71. Work Done by Isothermic Process
  72. Carnot Cycle and Carnot Engine
  73. Proof: Volume Ratios in a Carnot Cycle
  74. Proof: S (or Entropy) is a valid state variable
  75. Thermodynamic Entropy Definition Clarification
  76. Reconciling Thermodynamic and State Definitions of Entropy
  77. Entropy Intuition
  78. Maxwell’s Demon
  79. More on Entropy
  80. Efficiency of a Carnot Engine
  81. Carnot Efficiency 2: Reversing the Cycle
  82. Carnot Efficiency 3: Proving that it is the most efficient
  83. Enthalpy
  84. Heat of Formation
  85. Hess’s Law and Reaction Enthalpy Change
  86. Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity
  87. Gibbs Free Energy Example
  88. More rigorous Gibbs Free Energy/ Spontaneity Relationship
  89. A look at a seductive but wrong Gibbs/Spontaneity Proof
  90. Stoichiometry Example Problem 1
  91. Stoichiometry Example Problem 2
  92. Limiting Reactant Example Problem 1
  93. Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Stoichiometry
  94. Example of Finding Reactant Empirical Formula
  95. Stoichiometry of a Reaction in Solution
  96. Another Stoichiometry Example in a Solution
  97. Molecular and Empirical Forumlas from Percent Composition

Organic Chemistry

  1. Representing Structures of Organic Molecules
  2. Naming Simple Alkanes
  3. Naming Alkanes with Alkyl Groups
  4. Correction – 2-Propylheptane should never be the name!
  5. Common and Systematic Naming-Iso, Sec and Tert Prefixes
  6. More Organic Chemistry Naming Examples 1
  7. Organic Chemistry Naming Examples 2
  8. Organic Chemistry Naming Examples 3
  9. Organic Chemistry Naming Examples 4
  10. Organic Chemistry Naming Examples 5
  11. Naming Alkenes Examples
  12. Naming Alkyl Halides
  13. sp3 Hybridized Orbitals and Sigma Bonds
  14. Pi bonds and sp2 Hybridized Orbitals
  15. Newman Projections
  16. Newman Projections 2
  17. Chair and Boat Shapes for Cyclohexane
  18. Double Newman Diagram for Methcyclohexane
  19. Introduction to Chirality
  20. Chiral Examples 1
  21. Chiral Examples 2
  22. Cahn-Ingold-Prelog System for Naming Enantiomers
  23. R,S (Cahn-Ingold-Prelog) Naming System Example 2
  24. Stereoisomers, Enantiomers, Diastereomers, Constitutional Isomers and Meso Compounds
  25. Cis-Trans and E-Z Naming Scheme for Alkenes
  26. Entgegen-Zusammen Naming Scheme for Alkenes Examples
  27. Introduction to Reaction Mechanisms
  28. Markovnikov’s Rule and Carbocations
  29. Addition of Water (Acid-Catalyzed) Mechanism
  30. Polymerization of Alkenes with Acid
  31. Sn2 Reactions
  32. Sn1 Reactions
  33. Steric Hindrance
  34. Sn2 Stereochemistry
  35. Solvent Effects on Sn1 and Sn2 Reactions
  36. Nucleophilicity (Nucleophile Strength)
  37. Nucleophilicity vs. Basicity
  38. E2 Reactions
  39. E1 Reactions
  40. Zaitsev’s Rule
  41. Comparing E2 E1 Sn2 Sn1 Reactions
  42. E2 E1 Sn2 Sn1 Reactions Example 2
  43. E2 E1 Sn2 Sn1 Reactions Example 3
  44. Free Radical Reactions
  45. Alcohols
  46. Alcohol Properties
  47. Resonance
  48. Ether Naming and Introduction
  49. Cyclic ethers and epoxide naming
  50. Ring-opening Sn2 reaction of expoxides
  51. Sn1 and Sn2 epoxide opening discussion
  52. Aromatic Compounds and Huckel’s Rule
  53. Naming Benzene Derivatives Introduction
  54. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
  55. Bromination of Benzene

 

 

 



General Chemistry Online – http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/index.shtml

From Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia.
Chemistry is the study of the atomic building blocks of nature, how they combine and their combinations which form
the solids, liquids,
and gases that make up most forms of matter. For the many different
chemical
elements
and compounds,
see:

The Periodic
table

List
of compounds

Inorganic
chemistry
, including solid
state chemistry
, which studies the basic principles that are applied
in mineralogy and materials
science
.

Organic
chemistry
, which underlies biochemistry and polymer chemistry and is the study of carbon-containing molecules.

Physical
chemistry
, which includes computational
chemistry
, quantum
chemistry
and surface
chemistry
.

Analytical
chemistry
, the basis of environmental
chemistry
.

To represent structures easily, you can use chemical
ASCII-art
.



NEW! Periodic Chart of the
Elements with correlation to their health aspects – http://www.lenntech.com/periodic-chart.htm
Each element contains a link to a page that
explains its
chemical
properties
, and its health effectsand environmental
effects,  In four languages


Periodic
Tables

109
– Visual Elements
– Visit the new visual interpretation of the table of
elements at chemsoc, the chemistry societies network

A
Brief History of the Development of the Periodic Table
– Western Oregon
University

Chemicool
Periodic Table
– Oxidation and electrons, reactions, conductivity, and
radius information; by David D. Hsu

Hyper
Chemistry on the Web! – The Periodic Table
– Description of the
elements’ physical, structural, and chemical properties; 1996 Thinkquest
Entry

Magnetic
Resonance Periodic Table
– Receive magnetic resonance information for
an element

A
Periodic Table of the Elements at Los Alamos National Laboratory
-Elemental
properties, uses, sources, and handling; by the Los Alamos National
Laboratory

WebElements-
Mark Winter’s (University of Sheffields) award winning site; elemental
background, descriptions, and physical properties

X-Ray
Properties of the Periodic Table
– Choose an element and receive its
x-ray properties

Nuclear
Terminology


The Language of the Nucleus, on-line edition.

The world’s largest nuclear glossary.
http://glossary.dataenabled.com/



A
P Chemistry

AP Central – AP Chemistry Course Home Page
AP Chemistry
AP Chemistry Review Activities
Advanced Placement Chemistry – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chemistry Study Cards
AP Chemistry
Amazon.com: Cracking the AP Chemistry Exam, 2010 Edition (College
AP Chemistry

AP Chemistry
Cards
Chemistry Terms
Chemistry Links 1
Chemistry Links 2
Chemistry Books
Chemistry JAVA
ChemTeam:
Main Menu



Chemistry Coach


AP Chemistry
Resources



AP
Central – Chemistry Course Perspective



chemmybear.com


Chemistry


PSIgate
– Physical Sciences Information Gateway – Web Catalogue
AP Chemistry Page


AP
Concepts Home Page
AP Workshop–UCR
2000



High 2


AOL – Apex
Learning



AP Interactive Animations


AP Chemistry


AP Chemistry Exam


AP
Web Sites



AP
Chemistry



Chemistry
Server’s Output
video: The
Standard Deviants: Chemistry, Part 1 
~
VHS  or DVD
video: The
Standard Deviants: Chemistry, Part 2
~ VHS 
 or
DVD

video: The Standard Deviants: Chemistry, Part 3 ~ VHS or
DVD


PRESSURE CONVERSION




http://www.chemistrycoach.com/tutorials-4.htm#Acids%20and%20Bases:

NEW!
FREE!! –  Engineering Books Online


Chemistry – Animations


Online Marketing Training. URL: http://online-college-search.org/Sales_and_Marketing_Schools.html 
Desc: You have come to the right place if you are looking for more information on Sales and Marketing Schools, Online Marketing Colleges or Online Marketing Degrees. 


Organic Chemistry
Tutorials

Acids and Bases

     Vocabulary  
|  
Conjugate
Acids and Bases
   |   Use
of the pKa Table
   |   Molecular
Structure and Acidity

Carbocations     Carbocations

Curved Arrows     Curved
Arrows

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles     Vocabulary  
|   Electrophiles
and Nucleophiles

Formal Charge     Formal
Charge

Lewis Dot Structures     Drawing
Lewis Dot Structures

Resonance     Vocabulary  
|   Drawing
Resonance Contributor
   |   Most
Important Resonance Contributor

Stereochemistry     Stereochemistry
lecture presentation (Chem 30A fall 2002)

Organic Stereochemistry: http://www.saintmarys.edu/~pbays/Stereochemistry.html

     Vocabulary  
|   Identifying
Stereocenters
   |   Determining
Molecular Chirality
   |   Classification
of Isomers
   |

     Stereocenter
Nomenclature: The R/S System
   |   Drawing
Enantiomers and Diastereomers
   |   Specific
Rotation and Related Calculations

tutorials.html

Organic Chemistry OnLine Tutorial
Organic
Chemistry Help!

Organic
Chemistry Tutorials

Tutorials
in organic chemistry
Metabolic
Pathways of Biochemistry – Organic Chemistry Tutorial
Computational
Chemistry and Organic Synthesis
General,
Organic and Biochemistry
Colby
OChem Visual Demos
Tutorials-8



CHEMISTRY
TERMS


Chemistry Thesaurus – download
 

IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology

[A] [B]
[C] [D]
[E] [F]
[G] [H]
[I] [J]
[K] [L]
[M]

[N] [O]
[P] [Q]
[R] [S]
[T] [U]
[V] [W]
[X] [Y]
[Z]



The following WWW links will
take you directly to the various web site pages.  Your browser URL
address line will tell you the origin of the site.


Chemistry
Review
    http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/chapters.html


For a brief introduction to chemistry click on
this;
TUTORIAL
1.
   

then , TUTORIAL 2
  http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/tutorials


Next visit the following links that interest
you.

How
to survive basic chemistry. 
   www.chemtutor.com
Learning style
management.
   www.chemtutor.com
Class
management.
   www.chemtutor.com
How to study
for tests.
   
www.chemtutor.com

Some pointers
on general studying for chemistry.
  www.chemtutor.com
Problem
solving skills in chemistry.
   www.chemtutor.com
Some possibly
useful pointers on problem solving.
   www.chemtutor.com

2.
MATTER –
Matter is physically everything that exists
that we can touch and feel. Matter consists of atoms.  


Read
an introduction to ATOMS here.  


Here is a comparison of solids, liquids and
gasses
CLICK
HERE

All matter can be classified as being either a pure substance or a mixture. 
Matter can exist as either a solid, liquid, or a gas and can change among
these three states of matter.  Mixtures can be heterogeneous (made up of
two or more physically different parts or states of matter) or homogeneous
(consisting of components that cannot be individually detected.)  Homogenous
mixtures are usually called solutions.  In a two-component system, the
major component is called the solvent and the minor component is called the
solute.  Aqueous solutions have water as the solvent.  If the
components of a solution can be mixed in any proportion, they are said to be
miscible.  A colloid is a mixture in which the particles of the lesser
phase are intermediate in size between those present in the homogeneous
mixtures and those in heterogeneous mixtures; typically they are on the order
of 10 to 10,000 angstroms in diameter.


¿And
you thought you were strange? 
      
www.chemtutor.com

Atomic weights
and atomic numbers.
   www.chemtutor.com
Formula weight
or molecular weight.
     www.chemtutor.com
Electron
configuration.
  
www.chemtutor.com

Electron
configuration chart.
   www.chemtutor.com
Common electron
configuration scheme.
   www.chemtutor.com
Octet rule as
seen on the periodic chart.
    www.chemtutor.com
Sideways
periodic chart with electron shell numbers.
      www.chemtutor.com
Lewis
structures of elements.
    www.chemtutor.com

The view from above.
  www.chemtutor.com
Kinetic theory of
matter.
   www.chemtutor.com
Solids.   www.chemtutor.com
Liquids.   www.chemtutor.com


GASES  See special
article from Scott Specialty Gases


Description: The Scott Specialty Gases website is a
valuable resource for technical and safety chemical information including an
online MSDS Library, comprehensive downloadable Design and Safety handbook,
chemical innovations, specialty gases,
chemical safety tips, and compliance documentation.  Scott
Specialty Gases
http://www.scottgas.com/

Gases.    www.chemtutor.com
A walk up the phase
change graph.
   www.chemtutor.com
The ‘heat curve’ or
phase change graph for water.
   
www.chemtutor.com

Live steam.  www.chemtutor.com
Cooking in water.   www.chemtutor.com
Heat curve math.    www.chemtutor.com
Triple point of materials.   www.chemtutor.com
Heat curve
problems.
   www.chemtutor.com 
Heat properties of
selected materials.
  www.chemtutor.com 

Mixtures

Find
Optimal Formulation of Mixtures
Dept of
Energy Document

Process Optimization
Dept of Energy
Document
Design
Experiments
Dept of Energy Document
What
are materials made of? Separating mixtures

Separating
Mixtures – Chemistry – Curriculum Center
Incompatible
Chemical Mixtures – Chemistry Archives
mixture
(chemistry)
Molecules,
Mixtures, & Compounds – Chemistry Teaching Tip
GCSE
CHEMISTRY Mixtures – Definition – Separation – Physical 
General
Chemistry Online: Companion Notes: Matter
Chem4Kids.com:
Matter
GCSE
Chemistry Notes on Elements, Compounds, Separation Mrthods of
Mixtures
– Succeed in Physical Science
General
Chemistry Online: Companion Notes: Matter
General
Chemistry Online: Companion Notes: Matter: Separating Mixtures
Incompatible
Chemical Mixtures
Incompatible
Chemical Mixtures – Chemistry Archives
What
are materials made of? Separating mixtures.
Mixtures
and Pure Substances
Chem4Kids.com:
Matter
Chemistry
– Mixtures & Solutions
Separating
Mixtures – Chemistry – Curriculum Center 
mixture
(chemistry)
What
are materials made of? What are elements and compounds?
[PDF] Physical
Chemistry Mixtures
GCSE
Chemistry Notes on Elements, Compounds, Separation Mrthods of
Molecules,
Mixtures, & Compounds – Chemistry Teaching Tip
Chemistry
105a
Chemistry
Mixtures


Compounds

Molecules,
Mixtures, & Compounds – Chemistry Teaching Tip


General Chemistry Online: Library of common compounds
Glossary
of Class Names
Molecules
with Silly or Unusual Names
Chemistry
of Molecules & Compounds – Facts and Information
SpringerLink
– Publication
Organic
Compounds Database
Wiley::Carbocyclic
Cage Compounds: Chemistry and Applications
[PDF] Photochromic
compounds: Chemistry and application in ophthalmic lenses
Welcome
to the NIST WebBook




Famous scientist quote:
“All
men deal with matter in the gross and our bodies are constructed of it. 
Mysteries of matter, therefore, have a fascination for thoughtful laymen as
well as scientists and technologists.  The atom has long been familiar as
the ultimate unit of matter”.  Lord Ernest Rutherford (18771 – 1937)

3. 
ELEMENTS
There are four major parts
to learning chemistry basics. – – Elements, Laws and Theories, Combinations of
Elements, and Applied Chemistry – learn about them and what the words mean to
know the inner mysteries of chemistry.  Learn about each elements
physical characteristics and atomic structure by periodic chart of elements
and each elements associated physical characteristics.  


At
first concentrate on the more common elements of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon,
sodium, potassium, sulfur, and a few metals like copper, zinc, silver,
mercury, and lead.   Later you can study the rest of the elements.

Web
Elements Online –
http://www.webelements.com/index.html

Pictorial
Periodic Chart http://chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu/periodic/periodic.html

Periodic
Chart and other interesting things. http://radio.weblogs.com/0101365/categories/periodic/

The
periodic table, www.consol.ca/downloads/Periodic_Table.html


Chemistry is the study of
the atomic building blocks of nature, how they combine and their combinations which form
the solids, liquids,
and gases that make up most forms of matter. For the many different chemical
elements
and compounds,
see:


To represent structures easily, you can use chemical
ASCII-art
.

NEW! Periodic Chart of the
Elements with correlation to their health aspects – http://www.lenntech.com/periodic-chart.htm
Each element contains a link to a page that
explains its
chemical
properties
, and its health effects and environmental effects, 
In four languages


Periodic
Tables



Chemist’s
Art Gallery
— Nice Animation Site
Chem
Team – chemistry help

Chemical
of the Week

Chemistry
Tutorials & Bioethics

Crystals
Periodic
Table Challenge
— Fill in the Blank Table
Periodic
Table of the Elements
— Elements Seen in the Comics
Periodic Table — Basic Table
Periodic Table — Visual (Graphic Intense)
Periodic Table –
WebElements
–Very Nice Table
Periodic
Table
— History
Periodic Table of Poetry — Elements Put to Poetry



4. 
LAWS AND THEORIES:
   Learn about laws, theories, facts and various
principals of chemistry.  

For
example:
The law of conservation of matter, 
The law of definite composition,  
The law
of definite proportions

The atomic theory,  
The molecular
theory,
 
The gas laws and many
more.  This will require some memorization but knowing where you can get
the information is important.


The
laws of Thermodynamics
http://www.av8n.com/physics/thermo-laws.htm
The
Law of Definite Proportions, et al.
The
Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy
Elliott’s
Chemistry Laws, Principles and Equations

Hess’s
Law


Chemistry – Laws and Rules
Chemistry
Laws
Links:
Chemistry Laws and Theories
Tutorials-6
Gas
Law Tutorial Index
Virtual
Chemistry Experiments and Exercises
Chemistry
Tutor
Yahooligans!
Search Results for Chemistry Laws
General
Chemistry: starting points for students


[PDF] CHEMISTRY
1045C PROBLEM SET #3 Law of Definite Composition


Law of Definite Proportions
Chemical
Names and Formulas
Law
of definite proportions – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
law
of definite proportions: Information From Answers.com
Tutorials-2
Dictionary
L
law
of definite proportions – definition of law of definite
Law
of definite proportions – Biocrawler



The
Standard Model

Standard
Model


IV 2 Particle Chemistry –
Compounds
IV
1 Particle Chemistry – Fundamentals


The Standard Model

The
Strong Force; an Explanation – The Standard Model

(This is a very large .pdf file) 
(A
smaller version with fewer images HERE.)

Introduction
of everyday forces and quarks, leptons, boson’s, fundamental particles and
other issues.

From Cornell University: Professors Sadoff, Hine.  



The
Standard Model



IV
2 Particle Chemistry – Compunds


Nuclear
Force
Theory:
The Standard Model



Standard Model -
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


The
Standard Model of particle physics is a theory which describes the
strong … Unsolved problems in physics: Parameters in the Standard
Model: What gives …

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Model – 53k – Cached – Similar pages



Large Standard
Model Chart
THE
STANDARD MODEL OF PARTICLE PHYSICS
Chart
CERN-TH
1999 LHC Workshop
Physics
Encyclopedia: Electroweak Theory and Standard Model
The
Standard Model
BBC – h2g2 – The
Standard Model of Particle Physics
The
Standard Model



In
a study of magnesium absorption, chemist Joseph Domek measures magnesium
content in water with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Photo
by Scott Bauer.

5.  Stoichiometry
COMBINATIONS
OF ELEMENTS AND THEIR REACTIONS:
  Study chemical reactions by reading This is an example of a chemical reaction and a reversal.sections
on stoichiometry in chemistry text books and demonstrating them with
laboratory experiments.  (See laboratory cautions below). Combining
elements to form new combinations is a very important part of chemistry. (If
you don’t know the meaning of the words here look them up in the
“TERMS” links provided below.  Also look up the words in your
dictionary for additional understanding.)  Learn about the concept of a MOLE.  Learn more about chemical reactions HERE.

In
a simple equation, such as the synthesis of iron(II) sulfide,

iron + sulfur = iron(II) sulfide the equation requires no special balancing:

Fe
+ S
 
Ž   FeS

Our
last stage is to put in state symbols, (s, l, g, aq), as appropriate.

Fe(s)
+ S(s)
 
Ž   FeS(s)

On
a molar basis, we can say that one mole of iron (56g) reacts with one mole of
sulfur (32g) to produce one mole of the compound iron(II) sulfide (88g).

You
will need the ability in chemistry to describe formulas for any substance you
come across.  For ionic compounds the compound formula may be arrived at
odium (Na) has a charge of +1.  Oxygen (O) has a charge of
-2.  Carbon (C) has a charge of -4.  When by knowing the number of charges each ion has.  Memorize this table. 
For example syou see these elements in
a formula; substitute the charge numbers and that will tell you how many atoms
of each element are needed to balance the equation.

For
example if you combine sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) that is the same as +1 =
-1 = 0 so you only need one of each.  When we say one, it could mean one
atom or one mole.  So the formula for  a combination of sodium and
chlorine is Na+Clor often written with out the
superscripts as NaCl.   This is sodium chloride or common table
salt.  What about aluminum and chlorine?  +3 = -1 = +2  In this
case you need two chlorine (whatever) to balance the equation for the
compound.  It would end up as Al3+ 3 Clwhich is
AlCl3.  Some elements can have various charges like iron. 
They are written with roman numerals to indicate the charge; iron(II) Fe2+, 3+, etc.

Stoichiometry – CHEMICAL
REACTIONS 

Please
go to our STOICHIOMETRY page HERE.

LEWIS DOT STRUCTURE INFORMATION

LEWIS DOT STRUCTURE: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=5399558061059901856&q=chemistry


Lewis
Dot Movie:
To play the movie press play button >
above.

Movie
– Reactions:
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=393752449958147696&q=genre%3Aeducational


Construct
a Lewis Structure

Tutorials-1
Sites
to help students practice skills needed for the Chemistry exam
How
do I draw a Lewis structure for a molecule?
Molecular
Structure Calculations
Vision
Learning
Chemistry
: Chapter 6 : Tutorials
Grandinetti
Lewis
dot structures
Confirming
and visualizing Lewis Dot Structures
Bonding:
Lewis Dot Structures – Resonance
PSIgate
– Physical Sciences Information Gateway: Search/Browse Results
Original
Chemistry Tutorials
Chapter
5: Chemical Bonding
Organic
Chemistry/Foundational concepts of organic chemistry 
Lewis
Structures
Lewis
dot notation – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Chemistry
Lewis Dot structure
Regents
Prep Chemistry: Online Resources
Visualizing
Molecules
|
Lewis dot structure chemistry – Google Search

ACIDS
AND BASES

ACID
and BASE Chemistry http://www.shodor.org/UNChem/basic/ab/
What
are ACIDS? http://www.purchon.com/chemistry/acids.htm
History
of Acids and Bases http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A708257
The
Acids, Alkalis and Salts Crossword http://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/funstuff/xword/acids.htm
ABOUT
Acids and Bases http://chemistry.about.com/cs/acidsandbases/
Acids and Alkalis  http://www.gcsechemistry.com/aa.htm
Acids
and Bases http://sciencespot.net/Pages/kdzchem3.html
AMINO
Acids http://www.chemie.fu-berlin.de/chemistry/bio/amino-acids_en.html
AP
Acids http://www.chemistrygeek.com/c2c15.htm
Properties
and Examples http://qldscienceteachers.tripod.com/junior/chem/acid.html
Weak
Acids and Bases
Acid,
Base, and pH Tutorial
Acids
and Bases
Acids
and Bases – pH Chemistry
[PDF] Acids
and bases
The
educational encyclopedia, inorganic chemistry, acids and bases
Foundations
to Chemistry – adapted from “Chemistry, Matter and the
Glencoe
Online External Link
Chem4Kids.com:Reactions:Acids
and Bases

Acids
& Bases Problem Set
Acids
and Bases
Exploring
Acids and Bases
Acids
& Bases
Acids
Bases and Salts
CHEMystery:
Acids and Bases
Acids
and Bases
Acids
& Bases

Names
of common acids and their salts follow these simple rules:


-ic acids form -ate salts for example sulfuric
acid forms sulfate salts.

-ous acids form -ite salts for example
sulfurous acid forms sulfite salts.

hydro-(stem)-ic acids form – ide salts for
example hydrochloric acid forms chloride salts.

CHEMTUTOR
ACIDS AND BASES




Acids and Bases

     Vocabulary  
|   Conjugate
Acids and Bases
   |   Use
of the pKa Table
   |   Molecular
Structure and Acidity

Acids
Bases
and Alkaline Materials

Salts

Atmospheric
Chemistry

Atmospheric
Chemistry Air Quality Glossary


Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics – Home
daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/CAMPAIGN_DOCS/ATM_CHEM/ac_main.html
Ozone
and the Atmosphere Main Menu
IGAC
| International Global Atmospheric Chemistry
Research
in Atmospheric Chemistry at Leeds
Harvard
University Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling Group
Marine
and Atmospheric Chemistry
NERC
ACSOE Programme Home Page
CENTRE
FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY

Kluwer
Academic Publishers – Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry
Centre
for Atmospheric Chemistry
Atmospheric
Chemistry & Physics – Home
NCAR/Atmospheric
Chemistry Division
Airsite
– Atmospheric Chemistry on the Web
Atmospheric
Chemistry Program
daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/CAMPAIGN_DOCS/ATM_CHEM/ac_main.html
IGAC
| International Global Atmospheric Chemistry
PMEL
Atmospheric Chemistry

METALS

General
Data
http://science.uniserve.edu.au/school/curric/stage6/chem/metals.html
Properties http://qldscienceteachers.tripod.com/junior/chem/metals.html
Metals
Lists
http://dmoz.org/Science/Chemistry/Elements/Transition_Metals/
Alkali
Metal
http://www.chemicalelements.com/groups/alkali.html
Element
Types – Chemistry of Groups – Metals
ChemCases:
Cisplatin – 6. Transition Metal Chemistry
Chemistry
– Metals
Chemistry
Resources: Alkali Metals
Precious
Metals Chemistry :: pmc.htm
CHEMISTRY
– METALS
Research
Institute for Precious Metals and Metals Chemistry
General
Properties of the Metals – Element Chemistry

Metric Measurement for Chemistry

101
Calculations Page Including Chemistry Calculators

Consultant
in metallurgy & chemistry


Lesson Plans – Chemistry
CHEMystery:
Introduction to Chemistry: Measurements
metric
unit
General
Chemistry Online: FAQ: Measurement: Is the SI the same as
Math
Skills for Chemistry Tutorials
The
Metric System
Units
Units,
Scientific Notation, and Significant Figures
Unit
Conversion – The FootRule

General
Chemistry Online: Companion Notes: Measurement

Atmospheric
Chemistry: Field Measurement campaigns
Nulcear
Chemistry [Radionuclide Measurement]
MPS/MTP
Science Links: Chemistry Links : Measurement
[PDF] Chapter
1: Chemistry and Measurement
es
[PDF] Chemistry
and Measurement
[PDF] Physical
Chemistry Viscosity Measurement of viscosity Ostwald 
Atmospheric
Chemistry Ozone Measurements
Packet
1 – Chemistry & Measurement
[PDF] Chemistry
115 Chapter 1: Chemistry and Measurement What is 

Qualitative Chemistry

[PDF] Qualitative
Chemistry: Precipitation of cations and anions


2
The Original Qualitative Chemistry


Predicting Qualitative Chemistry Using Quantum Chemical 
Introduction
to Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative
Analysis – Chemistry Flame Tests
Qualitative
Chemistry
Qualitative
Analysis
Side-Eight
Software : ORganic Qualitative Analysis
Qualitative
Analysis
ChemLab
– Chemistry 3/5 – Qualitative Analysis of Cations 
Find
in a Library: Qualitative testing and inorganic chemistry.


Qualitative
Analysis
WebElements
forums :: View topic – Qualitative Chemistry…Ooye
PARKINSONS POSTFREE
BOOKS: CHEMISTRY – QUALITATIVE CHEMISTRY Books
Qualitative
Analysis
[PDF] QUALITATIVE
CHEMISTRY OF THE FIRST ROW TRANSITION METALS
Qualitative Chemistry – Google SearchInorganic Qualitative analysis at
http://www.mpcfaculty.net/ron_rinehart/1B/grpthree.htm
http://www.mpcfaculty.net/ron_rinehart/1B/genlunkn.htm

GASES

gas laws 

See
our GAS page

Quiz
with answers http://itl.chem.ufl.edu/2045_s00/gas_quiz.html
Gas
Law Problem http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Chem/Chem103lc/GCgas1.html
Gas
Law Tutorial http://www.chemistry.ohio-state.edu/betha/nealGasLaw/
GAS
Law Described http://www.shodor.org/unchem/advanced/gas/
Prepare
Gases http://chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/aa020603a.htm
Kinetic Theory of Gases http://members.tripod.com/~EppE/ktgases.htm
Gas Tutorial http://www.learnchem.net/tutorials/gases.shtml

Free GAS Handbook -pdf – http://www.boc.com/capability/Gases.pdf



GASES  See special
article from Scott Specialty Gases

Description: The Scott Specialty Gases website is a
valuable resource for technical and safety chemical information including an
online MSDS Library, comprehensive downloadable Design and Safety handbook,
chemical innova
tions, specialty gases,
chemical safety tips, and compliance documentation.  Scott
Specialty Gases
http://www.scottgas.com/

Gases.    www.chemtutor.com
Gas
Law Tutorial Index

Fuel
Chemistry
General
Chemistry Gas Quiz
General
Chemistry: Gas Law Problems
UW-Madison
Chemistry – Gas Phase Spectroscopy
Chemistry-Based
QuickTime Movies, Animations, and Streaming Audio
Tutorials-6
Microscale
Gas Chemistry
GCSE
CHEMISTRY Gas – Gases – All Links – gcsescience.com



Non-Metals 

Non-metals
Described
http://home.att.net/~cat6a/metals-V.htm

Slides
http://www.public.asu.edu/~jpbirk/CHM-115_BLB/Chpt22/
Introduction
to Non-Metal Chemistry

Element
Types – Chemistry of Groups – Nonmetals
Guide to
Chemistry
Google
Directory – Science > Chemistry > Elements > Nonmetals
ScienceDaily
— Browse Topics: Science/Chemistry/Elements/Nonmetals
Properties
of the Nonmetals – Element Chemistry
The
Chemistry of Nonmetals
Chemistry
International

SOLUTIONS

Preparing
Solutions http://www.coscosci.com/lab/test_solns.htm
Solutions/Dilutions/%/Molar http://abacus.bates.edu/~ganderso/biology/resources/dilutions.html

Solutions http://onsager.bd.psu.edu/~jircitano/solution.html
Solute and Solvents http://www.geocities.com/proofpurchaseweb/solutions.html
Tutorial http://www.learnchem.net/tutorials/solu.shtml

PinkMonkey.com – Chemistry Study Guide -CHAPTER : 8 SOLUTIONS



Solution Chemistry


Solution
Concentrations



Bad Chemistry
Solution Intro


Introductory
University Chemistry I. Dissolution, Evolution, and



SparkNotes:
SAT II Chemistry: Solutions



T-12: Theoretical
Solution Chemistry



Solutions


Solution

Making Solutions
http://www.uab.edu/clabsc/solution.htm#percent



CHEMICAL
REACTIONS 

Reactions http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/6-react.htm
Graphics http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/genobc/Chapter_05/
Key Points http://www.chem4kids.com/files/react_intro.html
Common types of reactions http://www.towson.edu/~ladon/react.html
Predicting reactions http://www.spusd.k12.ca.us/chemmybear/preactions.html
Chemical Reactions
http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=54
Chemistry
Experiments you can do at home –
http://www.bxscience.edu/~chinyu/2690/exper/exper.htm
Lab
Books Online – Phoenix College  http://chemlab.pc.maricopa.edu/labbooks/default.html
Lucid
stoichiometry
(LSU)
Hints
for solving stoichiometry problems
(Widener U)
Stoichiometry:
mass-mass problems
(ChemCentral)
Stoichiometry
worksheet
(Georgetown College)
Stoichiometry
introduction (limiting reagent)
(Carnegie Mellon)
Stoichiometry
(limiting reagent simulation)
Stoichiometry
1
(Wilton High School)

Stoichiometry 2
(Wilton High School)
Stoichiometry
3
(Wilton High School)
Stoichiometry
4
(Wilton High School)
Stoichiometry (DBHS)
Stoichiometry
by the recipe
(John Brodemus)
Stoichiometry
applet
(IrYdium Project)*
Stoichiometry
notes
(Erik)
What
is stoichiometry
(Floyd College)
Chemical
reaction stoichiometry web site
(Smith)
Mass
relationships in chemical equations
(CSU-DH)
Stoichiometry
online
(GSU)

BioChemisty/MicroChemistry
Software Downloads.

Good Chemistry
Tutorial Site


High School Chemistry Tutorials Complete
http://enc.org/weblinks/science/0,1578,1%2DChemistry,00.shtm

BIOCHEMISTRY  
Amino Acid Properties
Beginner’s
Guide to Molecular Biology

Biochemical
Procedures Online

Biochemistry:
Course Description

Biochemistry
– Web Edition

Biochemistry
and Cell Biology

Biochemistry
Course Materials

Biochemistry
of Neurotransmitters

Biochemistry:
Study Guide

Biology
Online

The
Biology Project: Biochemistry

Biophysical
Chemistry

Center for Molecular Modeling
Computational
Biochemistry Server at ETHZ

DNA
Graphics

European Journal of
Biochemistry

Glossary
of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Graphics
Gallery

Images of
Proteins/DNA

Kansas
University Medical Center Resources for Biochemistry

Life
Science Directory

Metabolic
Pathways of Biochemistry

Molecular
Library

Molecular
Models for Biochemistry

NDB
Atlas of Nucleic Acid Containing Structures
Cells
Lessons
Plans in Science
Biochemistry 1 (BioChemNet -
Schmidel)
Biochemistry 2 (BioChemNet
– Schmidel)
Biotechnology (BioChemNet
– Schmidel)
Biotechnology
Dictionary (BioTech Resources)
Cells – Dictionary
of Cell and Molecular Biology (Lackey and Dow) 3-00
Genomes
Research – Resources (US Department of Energy and the Human Genome Project)
Human
Genome Map – Chromosome 21 and Base Pairs (BBC News)
Human Genome
Map – Status (Nature – Macmillan Publishers)
Biology Clip Art
– Free (BioChemNet – Schmidel)
DNA Sequencing (Howard Hughes
Medical Institute)
DNA, Genes, and
Heredity (DNA Learning Center)
Alzheimer’s Disease
– Vaccine Prevents Alzheimer’s In Mice (applesforhealth)
Basic
Biological Structure Revealed (applesforhealth)
Brain – Compound
Fights Prion Brain Disease (applesforhealth)
Brain – Probing
The Mechanics Of Memory (applesforhealth)
Brain Region
Mapped (applesforhealth)
Cancer – Repairing
DNA After UV Damage (applesforhealth)
Cancer – Smart
Bombs May Blast Cancer Cells (applesforhealth)
Cancer -
Unmasking Genetic Causes Of Cancer (applesforhealth)
Cell Transplant
Fixes Damaged Brain (applesforhealth)


Biomedia http://ebiomedia.com


The Biology Project: Biochemistry

Chemistry
Tutorial
BIOCHEMISTRY
TUTORIAL
General,
Organic and Biochemistry
www.kumc.edu/research/medicine/biochemistry/bioc800/start.html
AW:
Tutorial
Tutorials
biochemistry
tutorial, biochemistry online tutorial

Geological
Chemistry

Sheffield
Chemdex – Geological chemistry


Indiana State University : Department of Chemistry : Environmental 
Chemistry
: Periodic Table : oxygen : geological information
Home
Page “Understanding Our Planet Through Chemistry”
Geological
Chemistry
BBC
– GCSE Bitesize – Chemistry | Geology | Geological changes
Impact
Geology, Chemistry and Physics

THERMOCHEMISTRY

Thermochemistry
I

Thermochemistry
– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thermochemistry
II

Thermochemistry
III
Thermochemistry
of the Chemical Substances
Erik’s Chemistry:
Thermochemistry
ChemTeam:
Thermochemistry
COTW06
Thermochemistry
IV
GTT’s Technical
Thermochemistry Web Page
Chem4Kids.com:
Reactions: Thermodynamics
Thermochemistry
V
Laws
of Thermochemistry – Understanding Enthalpy
Thermochemistry
VI
Gas-Phase Ion
Thermochemistry
Thermochemistry
Resources
Thermochemistry
VII
www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03645916


Computer Chip
Chemistry

Software http://gttserv.lth.rwth-aachen.de/~sp/tt/
Temperature http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch5/tempframe.html
Chemical
Thermodynamics & Spontaneity
http://members.aol.com/profchm/thermo.html
Online
Interactive QUIZ
http://lrc-srvr.mps.ohio-state.edu/under/chemed/qbank/quiz/bank4.htm
Thermochemistry Links http://users.erols.com/merosen/thermo.htm

HEAT     (Specific heat immediately follows this
section.)

MSN
Encarta – Heat (physics)


Heat Energy Transformation Video Demonstration – GREAT!
Physics
Encyclopedia: Temperature and Heat



AllRefer.com -
heat (Physics) – Encyclopedi



Thermal Dynamics – the
Science of Heat / Physics



Race
Sim Central Forums – Heat Physics Explained



Heat
Physics – Information Technology Services



A glossary of
physics terms, with links to an online textbook
Energy
Savers: Heat Flow Physics



Heat
and Temperature



webmaster
The physics of
sailing



Physics
2211K, Mechanics, Waves and Heat



Buildingphysics.com


Properties of Heat
and Matter



Heat — from Eric
Weisstein’s World of Physics


scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/Heat.html – Similar pages


Bubbles feel the heat
(March 2005) – News – PhysicsWeb
The ‘heat curve’ or
phase change graph for water.
   
www.chemtutor.com

Live steam.  www.chemtutor.com
Cooking in water.   www.chemtutor.com
Heat curve math.    www.chemtutor.com
Triple point of materials.   www.chemtutor.com
Heat curve
problems.
   www.chemtutor.com 
Heat properties of
selected materials.
  www.chemtutor.com 

Specific
Heat

Specific
Heat

Specific
Heat — from Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics
The
Specific Heats
Specific
heat capacity – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Specific Heat -
Commercial Heating, Ventilation & Airconditioning
Specific
Heat Capacity
specific
heat
MIT 3.091
Periodic Table of the Elements: Specific Heat Capacity
Specific
Heat
ChemTeam:
Specific Heat


ChemTeam: Specific Heat
specific
heat on Encyclopedia.com
Monachos
Mechanical Engineering – Specific Heat cp of various
Heat – Heat
and energy
Specific
Heats
Calorimetry:
Specific Heat Capacity of Copper
iScienceProject
Labs
[PDF] Specific
Heat of Solids

Temperature Converters

Java
Converter http://www.csgnetwork.com/tempconv.html

Celsius,
Fahrenheit, Kelvin, Réaumur, and Rankine Temperature
Table
1-2 Temperature Conversion Scale
Temperature
Scales, Conversion Formulae and Aids
Lesson
2-9 Temperature Conversions
USATODAY.com
The
MSDS HyperGlossary: Temperature Unit Conversions
CISAB
| Temperature Calculator
Temperature
conversion program (Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin)
Fahrenheit
and Celsius


Temperature Scales
College
of Chemistry – University of California at Berkeley 
Celsius
and Fahrenheit Conversion
Conversion
of Temperature – Celsius to Fahrenheit
Temperature
Celsius
– Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fahrenheit
to Celsius Temperature Conversion
Temperature
Conversion from Celsius to Fahrenheit
Online
Math Games. Temperature Conversion. Convert a temperatures 
Fahrenheit
and Celsius (Centigrade) Scales


Thermodynamics

The
Second Law of Thermodynamics


The
laws of Thermodynamics
http://www.av8n.com/physics/thermo-laws.htm

Applied
Thermodynamics, Energy, Power Plant, Combustion, Heat, Air
Thermodynamics and
Thermal Physics
Thermodynamics -
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
All
Thermodynamics
Nanotech,
Quantum & Statistical Mechanics & Thermodynamics Data
About Temperature
www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00219614


Thermodynamics
Home Page


Chemical Thermodynamics
Physical
Chemistry, Thermochemistry & Thermodynamics
Physical
Chemistry Lecture Notes
Defintion
of thermodynamics – Chemistry Dictionary
Thermodynamics
and Chemistry
CHEM 331
Botany
online: Physical Chemistry – Thermodynamics
SparkNotes:
SAT Chemistry: Thermodynamics
Erik’s Chemistry:
First Law of Thermodynamics Terms
Education
Thermodynamics: Physical Chemistry


BONDING

Bonding http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=55
Chemical Bonds http://www.purchon.com/chemistry/bonding.htm
AP Bonding http://www.chemistrygeek.com/c2c6.htm
GCSE, dot-school: Bonding http://www.dot-school.net/gcse/subject-chemistry-bonding.php
Understanding Bonding http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/bondingmenu.html#top

How does SuperGlue Work? 
http://www.eff.org/Publications/Bruce_Sterling/FSF_columns/fsf.07
Understanding
Chemistry – Atomic Structure and Bonding Menu
Bonding
– Chemistry
Structure
and Bonding in Chemistry
Chemical
Bonding
Structure
and Bonding – Chemistry Tutorial Text
Chemistry
Chemistry
Bonding Images
Download
Covalent Bonding – chemistry software, chemical bonding
Ionic
Bonding – Chemistry teaching software which simulates the 
Google
Directory – Kids and Teens > School Time > Science
Chemistry
software for high schools
SparkNotes:
Introduction to Chemical Bonding
AP
Chemistry: Bonding
chemguide:
helping you to understand Chemistry – Main Menu
Virginia
Tech Chemistry Department
Chemistry
Tutorial: Chemical Bonds and Attractive Forces
MPS/MTP
Science Links: Chemistry Links : Chemical Bonding
Ionic
Bonding – Interactive Chemistry teaching software.
HEMystery:
Atomic Structure and Bonding
MIT
Biology Hypertextbook: Chemistry Review
Silica-Based
Reversed-Phase Columns
[PDF] Difunctional
C Bonding Chemistry Provides Longer Column Lifetime
Chemistry
Web
Recent
Publications by NIST Authors
Chemical
Bonds
Chemistry
Tutorial
Ionic
Bond — from Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Covalent
bonds (General Chemistry)

Types
Of Bonds

Chemical
bonds
Chemical
Bonding
Chemistry
Tutorial: Chemical Bonds and Attractive Forces
Chemical
Bonds
Chem4Kids.com:
Atoms: Compounds
3.
Types of Chemical Bonding [Beyond Books – Introduction to
[PDF] Arizona
Educator Proficiency Assessments (AEPA ™ ) FIELD 08
learn.co.za
: Chemistry
CLEP:
Chemistry
#96
Molecular Shapes and Types of Bonds — Department of Chemistry 

ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Electrochemistry
Tutorial
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/elchem/
http://www.chem1.com/acad/pdf/c1xElchem.pdf
Dictionary http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/bondingmenu.html#top
Experiments http://www.funsci.com/fun3_en/electro/electro.htm
Electro Chemical Reactions http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch20/electroframe.html
Voltaic
Cells
http://members.aol.com/logan20/electchm.html
Electrochemistry http://ro.zrsss.si/badoko/electrochemistry.htm

Electrochemistry
Dictionary
Electrochemistry
Encyclopedia
www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13882481
International
Society of Electrochemistry
Experiments
in Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry
Resources
The
Electrochemistry Group @ The University of Liverpool

NUCLEAR
CHEMISTRY

Intoduction http://www.chem.duke.edu/~jds/cruise_chem/nuclear/nuclear.html
Living
Textbook
http://livingtextbook.oregonstate.edu/
Nuclear
Chemistry
http://staff.gc.maricopa.edu/~ldiebolt/00152note/nucchmkey.pdf

Nuclear
Chemistry and the Community

The Living Textbook
of Nuclear Chemistry
Nuclear
Chemistry
Nuclear
Chemistry
SpringerLink
– Publication
Nuclear
Chemistry
ACS Division of Nuclear
Chemistry
www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00201650
Welcome to Nuclear Chemistry at
Chalmers
Nuclear
chemistry – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nuclear
Chemistry
DEFAULT
Department of
Chemistry, Nuclear Chemistry
Many Body Nuclear
Dynamics Group at Indiana University Cyclotron 
Nuclear
Chemistry
Nuclear
Chemistry
Nuclear
Chemistry – Discovery of the Neutron
Nuclear
Chemistry
2004
GRC on Nuclear Chemistry

Atomic Structure

Making
Matter: Index


The atomic structure webpage can be found at
Atomic
Structure
CHEMTUTOR
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Index
of /staffwww/stefanl/Webquest/Atoms/
CHEMystery:
Atomic Structure and Bonding
Atomic
Structure
Structure
of the Atom (grades 6-8)
www.chem4kids.com/atoms/structure.html
Atomic
Structure Timeline


Organic Chemistry: Atomic Structure
Atomic
Theory I
Understanding
Chemistry – Atomic Structure and Bonding Menu
chemguide:
helping you to understand Chemistry – Main Menu
Introduction
to Inorganic Chemistry
Chem4Kids.com:Atoms
Learn
Chemistry Tutorials – Atomic Structure and Periodicity
Learn
Chemistry: Atomic Structure Practice Problems – Questions
Atomic
Structure

Understanding Chemistry – Atomic Structure and
Bonding Menu
Atomic
& Molecular Structure – General Chemistry & Quantum Physics
SparkNotes:
Organic Atomic Structure
Atomic
Structure
General
Chemistry/Atomic structure – Wikibooks, collection of open
Chemistry
: Chapter 3 : Tutorials
Atomic
Theory I
Atomic
Structure Timeline
Weblinks
/ Science / Chemistry / Atomic Structure
Atomic
Structure


Nuclear Terminology

The Language of the Nucleus, on-line edition.

The world’s largest nuclear glossary. http://glossary.dataenabled.com/



Basic
Chemistry

Link:
http://ceds.vu.edu.au/studentlearning/Science/Chemistry/ChemistryIntro.htm

BASIC CHEMISTRY

Atomic
theory
is
basic to Chemistry. The theory states that all matter is composed of a set of
very small units called atoms. One of the very first laws to be discovered
leading to the establishment of Chemistry as a science is the Law
of Conservation of Matter
. The law states there is no detectable change in
the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical
reaction
. (Modern Physics now teaches that atoms and energy can be neither created nor destroyed.) On a superficial level this means that
if we start off with 10,001
atoms and proceed with many chemical reactions, we
will be left with 10,001 atoms. Even if we started off with something green
and gooey and ended up with something black and hard there will still be the
same number of atoms. The mass will be the same too if the energy gained or lost is accounted for. Chemistry
studies the interactions of these atoms, sometimes alone but more often
combined with (bonded to) other atoms to form ions and molecules.
These atoms interact with other atoms (e.g. a wood fire is the combination of oxygen atoms from the air with the carbon and hydrogen atoms in the wood) and they also interact with light (a photograph is formed from the changes that light causes to the chemicals on
a film) and other types of radiation. One surprisingly early finding was that
these atoms almost always combine in definite ratios or proportions: silica
sand is a structure where the ratio of silicon atoms to oxygen atoms is 2:1. We now know that there are exceptions to this Law
of Definite Proportions
(integrated circuits are a good example). Another
key discovery in chemistry was that when a change is made, the amount of
energy gained or lost will always be the same. This leads to the important
concepts of equilibrium, thermodynamics,
and kinetics.
The most interesting theory describing all of chemistry is Quantum
Mechanics
. This theory is complex, non-intuitive,
and difficult to master. Often, simpler concepts are used to predict the
results of experiments. These concepts (e.g. acid/base chemistry) are limited
in scope, but much easier to understand and apply. College students typically
study chemistry in the following “blocks”: Analytical
Chemistry
, Physical
Chemistry
, Organic
Chemistry
, Inorganic
Chemistry
, Polymer
Chemistry
and Biochemistry.
Often, discoveries in chemistry are made by physicists, biologists, chemical
engineers
or pharmacists.

Now go back to the table at the top of this page and explore all the topics, one at a time.

ORGANIC
CHEMISTRY

What is organic chemistry? 

Organic
Chemistry –
The study of the element carbon and its compounds including
living matter.


Organic
Chemistry Virtual Textbook


Web-ster’s
Organic Chemistry Definition –
http://ep.llnl.gov/msds/orgchem/Web-sters_Org_Chem.html


Organic
Chemistry Help!!! –  http://www.chemhelper.com/


Organic Stereochemistry htttp://www.saintmarys.edu/~pbays/Stereochemistry.html
Organic Chemistry Resources http://www.organicworldwide.net/
Organic Chemistry Terms and Definitions http://www.brunel.ac.uk/depts/chem/definit/definit.htm
Tutorials http://www.chemhelper.com/
Name Reactions http://www.pmf.ukim.edu.mk/PMF/Chemistry/reactions/rindex.htm
Flashcards http://www.chemistry.ohio-state.edu/organic/flashcards/
Organic Laboratory http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/organic_lab/
Organic Chemistry Links http://www.liv.ac.uk/Chemistry/Links/reforganic.html
Organic Compounds Database http://www.colby.edu/chemistry/cmp/cmp.html
Organic Chemistry Online http://www.chem.uic.edu/web1/OCOL-II/WIN/HOME.HTM
Named Reactions http://orgchem.chem.uconn.edu/namereact/named.html
Organic Chemistry Software http://www.chemistry-software.com/
Organic
Chemistry Nomenclature
Analytic, Organic
and Physical Chemistry Tutorials
Chemistry
Tutorial and Resouce Page (Chime)
Organic
Chemistry Definitions
Organic
Chemistry Online
: U. Illinois, Carbondale

The Basics of NMR
(Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, a means for determining the
structure of chemical compounds).
Organic Chemistry
Organometalic
HyperTextbook
Advanced Organic Lab
Experiments
Introduction
to Electrochemistry
: General
Electrochemistry:
Overview at Compton’s Encyclopedia.
Batteries:
(Oregeon State University).
Fuel Cells:
Descriptions of different types of fuel cells.
Chemical
Demonstrations
: From the sci.chem FAQ. Demonstrations
The Delights of
Chemistry
: Demonstrations
Chemistry
Lecture Demonstrations
 
Polymers
Laboratory Activities
: Dept. Materials Science, U. Illinois – video clips 
Organic
Chemistry
Basic Biochemistry
Overview
Chemistry
of Life – Tutorials
Organic Chemistry Help


Organic chemistry videos – learn organic
chemistry the easy way.



The
Standard Deviants: Organic Chemistry, Part 1
 


The
Standard Deviants: Organic Chemistry, Part 2
~
VHS 


The
Standard Deviants: Organic Chemistry, Part 3
 


Organic Chemistry
Tutorials

Acids and Bases

     Vocabulary  
|   Conjugate
Acids and Bases
   |   Use
of the pKa Table
   |   Molecular
Structure and Acidity


Carbocations     Carbocations

Curved Arrows     Curved
Arrows


Electrophiles and Nucleophiles     Vocabulary  
|   Electrophiles
and Nucleophiles


Formal Charge     Formal
Charge


Lewis Dot Structures     Drawing
Lewis Dot Structures


Resonance     Vocabulary  
|   Drawing
Resonance Contributor
   |   Most
Important Resonance Contributor


Stereochemistry     Stereochemistry
lecture presentation (Chem 30A fall 2002)


Organic Stereochemistry: http://www.saintmarys.edu/~pbays/Stereochemistry.html

     Vocabulary  
|   Identifying
Stereocenters
   |   Determining
Molecular Chirality
   |   Classification
of Isomers
   |

     Stereocenter
Nomenclature: The R/S System
   |   Drawing
Enantiomers and Diastereomers
   |   Specific
Rotation and Related Calculations

tutorials.html

Organic Chemistry OnLine Tutorial
Organic
Chemistry Help!


Organic
Chemistry Tutorials

Tutorials
in organic chemistry
Metabolic
Pathways of Biochemistry – Organic Chemistry Tutorial
Computational
Chemistry and Organic Synthesis
General,
Organic and Biochemistry
Colby
OChem Visual Demos
Tutorials-8


Organic Chemistry Help!


Organic Chemistry – High
School

Chemistry
of Life – Tutorials

LearnChem.net – Reactions
Organic Chemistry Help


Organic Chemistry
Tutorials

Acids and Bases

     Vocabulary  
|   Conjugate
Acids and Bases
   |   Use
of the pKa Table
   |   Molecular
Structure and Acidity


Carbocations     Carbocations

Curved Arrows     Curved
Arrows


Electrophiles and Nucleophiles     Vocabulary  
|   Electrophiles
and Nucleophiles


Formal Charge     Formal
Charge


Lewis Dot Structures     Drawing Lewis Dot
Structures


Resonance     Vocabulary  
|   Drawing
Resonance Contributor
   |   Most
Important Resonance Contributor


Stereochemistry     Stereochemistry
lecture presentation (Chem 30A fall 2002)


     Vocabulary  
|   Identifying
Stereocenters
   |   Determining
Molecular Chirality
   |   Classification
of Isomers
   |

     Stereocenter
Nomenclature: The R/S System
   |   Drawing
Enantiomers and Diastereomers
   |   Specific
Rotation and Related Calculations

Organic
Chemistry Help!

Organic
Chemistry Tutorials

Tutorials
in organic chemistry

tutorials.html

Metabolic
Pathways of Biochemistry – Organic Chemistry Tutorial 

Colby
OChem Visual Demos

Computational
Chemistry and Organic Synthesis

Tutorials-8

Module
CS204: Organic Chemistry Tutorials

Chemogenesis: 
The Story of How Chemical Reactivity Emerges From The Periodic
Table of The Elements  By: Mark R. Leach  http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook.html#background


Who Is This Web Book For?


Chemogenesis is for academic chemists, teachers
of chemistry and students of the subject. The material in this web book has
been written – and drawn – so that it can be understood by a first year
university chemistry major, a bright and interested school student, or a
scientifically literate lay person.

The material is intended to be accessible to
professional scientists who require a knowledge of chemical reactions and
chemical reactivity but who were dazed and confused by the subject at
university: physicists, engineers, geologists, biochemists, biologists,
medics, etc.




The
Higher Education Academy – Physical Sciences Centre 

Chemogenesis
Text – Physics Forums Library
PSIgate
– Physical Sciences Information Gateway: Search/Browse Results
CHEMOGENESIS?
— 47 (1): 32 — Journal of Heredity
CHEMED-L
archives — December 2005 (#210)


NewsletterCCE_Fall_04
[PDF] Physical
Sciences Centre Journal – Number 9
Overview of The
Chemical Thesaurus reaction chemistry database
Re:CCCE
Fall Newsletter, P7 Dis-12/5/05-WVV
Star Picks
Cosmology
– Evolution
Science
Department – Favorite Links
A
New Kind of Science: The NKS Forum – Chemistry site
[Incidence
of hereditary disorders caused by prolonged malachite 



MATHCAD for Chemistry

 



 

Mathcad
in Chemistry

Mathcad
and Chemistry

JCE
Online: Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum

Mathcad
Documents for Physical Chemistry

Explorations
in Physical Chemistry

Use
of Mathcad in Chemistry 450

Ññûëêè
Mathcad

Mathcad
@ AdeptScience: The Ultimate Technical Design Solution


Mathcad
Files – various


Analytical
Chemistry WWW Sites

The
Elements of Physical Chemistry

Mathcad
Files

MJ
Software A/S

Mathcad:
References

Chem2700
Gustavus
Physical Chemistry Web Page

search
mathcad.com

Miscellaneous
useful pchem and visualization links.


Following links from: Jensen,
R. H. www.consol.ca, Research link, 22 November 2001.












Physical Chemistry

Atomic
Surfaces.mcd
(pdf)

Generates and displays atomic surfaces based on the Miller indices
for body-centered-cubic (bcc) and face-centered-cubic (fcc) packing
arrangements. Outputs the atomic coordinates to a file.

BlackBody.mcd (pdf)

Visualization of the blackbody spectrum and the ability to integrate
the spectrum between any two points.

Brownian
Motion.mcd

Visualization of 1D, 2D, and 3D brownian motion. This
file
includes sample avi movies.

Diatomic
PESs.zip

MathCad program and data files for several diatomic molecules. The
program plots the electronic states (as Morse potentials) for all the
known states with anharmonic constants.

Harmonic
Oscillator.mcd
(pdf)

Analytical solution to the Schrödinger equation with the harmonic
oscillator potential. For two potentials with user-specified constants
(mass, re, we), this program plots the potential,
wavefunctions, and determines the overlap integral. See also Morse.mcd.

LS
Coupling.mcd
(pdf)

(Russel-Saunders coupling) Determines the diatomic state
configurations for all possible arrangements of n electrons in m
orbitals assuming strong coupling between the orbital and spin angular
momentum.

Maxwell
Boltzmann.mcd
(pdf)

The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds.

Morse.mcd (pdf)

Analytical solution to the Schrödinger equation with the Morse
potential. For two potentials with user-specified constants (mass, re,
we, wexe), this program plots the
potential, wavefunctions, and determines the overlap integral. See also Harmonic
Oscillator.mcd
.

Wavelength
Uncertainty.mcd
(pdf)

The magnitude of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle at short times.
Units of wavelength, wavenumber, frequency, etc.



EXPERIMENTS – For Students and Teachers





Color-Testing

Light
and Color
http://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem&Art/Topics/Light_and_Color/light_and_color.html

Flame
Test
http://chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/aa110401a.htm

Bead
Test
http://chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/aa010102a.htm

Color
Chemistry for Kids
http://www.kathimitchell.com/cchem.htm

Color
and Chemistry
http://www.answers.com/topic/color-and-chemistry?cat=technology

VIEW
OUR SPECTROSCOPY PAGE

See our Math
Page


Search
This Site!!  

Laboratory
Rubber Stopper Dimensions.


GOTO
CHEMISTRY LINKS I 
   More links

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Links

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  More
Information


Calc98
a Free Downloadable Calculator  

Calc98,
a free scientific, engineering, statistical and financial calculator for Windows
and PocketPC.  Calc98 includes a
vast range of units conversions, fundamental constants and physical property
data, and other features including arbitrary base numbers, Roman numerals and a
stopwatch feature and built-in Periodic Table of the Elements.


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THIS SITE
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THIS SITE
 




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Be sure to see the
Ph Tutorial, and more,  on page 2

CHEMISTRY
–  VIDEO TRAINING 

The
Standard Deviants: Chemistry, Part 1 
~
VHS or DVD
The
Standard Deviants: Chemistry, Part 2
~ VHS or DVD
The Standard Deviants: Chemistry, Part
3
~ VHS or DVD
The
Standard Deviants: Physics, Part 1
~ VHS (also on DVD)
The
Standard Deviants: Physics, Part 2
~ VHS (also on DVD)
The
Standard Deviants: Organic Chemistry, Part 1
 
The
Standard Deviants: Organic Chemistry, Part 2
~
VHS 
The
Standard Deviants: Organic Chemistry, Part 3
 

GENERAL
& REFERENCE
    INORGANIC    ANALYTIC    BIOCHEMISTRY    ORGANIC    PHYSICAL &
THEORETICAL
    CLINICAL
(LABORATORY)
    CRYSTALLOGRAPHY    POLLUTANTS

GENERAL & REFERENCE


1. The
Merck Index : An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (Annual)

2. CRC
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (79th Ed)
 

3. The
Periodic Table
 

4. CRC
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (79th Ed)

5. Barron’s
How to Prepare for the Sat II Chemistry (6th Ed)

6. Chemistry
: Concepts and Problems : A Self-Teaching Guide (Wiley Self-Teaching Guides)

7. The
Periodic Kingdom : A Journey into the Land of the Chemical Elements (Science
Masters Series)

8. Reverse
the Aging Process Naturally : How to Build the Immune System With
Antioxidants–The Super-Nutrients of the Nineties (The Gary Null Health Lib)
 

9. Molecules
at an Exhibition : Portraits of Intriguing Materials in Everyday Life
 

10. Chemistry
the Easy Way
 

11. Cracking
the Ap : Chemistry Exam 1999-2000 (Annual)
 

12. Hawley’s
Condensed Chemical Dictionary (13th Edition)
 

13. CRC
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and
Physical Data (Student Edition)
 

14. The
ACS Style Guide : A Manual for Authors and Editors 

15. Cracking
the Sat II : Chemistry Subject Test : 1998-99 (Annual)
 

16. Cracking
the Ap : Chemistry Exam : 1998-99 (Annual)
 

17. Dynamics
of Complex Systems (Studies in Nonlinearity)
 

18. Schaum’s
Outline of Theory and Problems of College Chemistry (Schaums Outline Series)
 

19. Barron’s
Ap Chemistry : Advanced Placement Examination (Serial)

20. Stochastic
Calculus : A Practical Introduction (Probability and Stochastics Series)
 

21. Gre
: Practicing to Take the Chemistry Test (3rd Ed)
 

22. The
Chemical History of a Candle
 

23. Psychedelic
Chemistry
 

24. Chemical
Magic
 

25. Molecular
Modelling : Principles and Applications
 

26. General
Chemistry
 

27. The
Properties of Gases and Liquids
 

28. The
Eagle’s Quest : A Physicist’s Search for Truth in the Heart of the Shamanic
World

29. McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Chemistry
 

Chemistry Books – www.101science.com

Lange’s
Handbook of Chemistry
   

We believe this edition of Lange to be a close-at-hand, bookshelf necessity for
science students, chemists, chemical engineers, and for others whose sphere of
interest intersects with that of chemistry.

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