Long-term data show a recent acceleration in chemical and physical changes in the ocean

Long-term data show a recent acceleration in chemical and physical changes in the ocean
From L to R: Rod Johnson (BATS Co-PI), Emily Davey (Research Technician), Dom Smith (Research Technician) and Claire Medley (Research Technician) sample the CTD for dissolved O2 and CO2 aboard the R/V Atlantic Explorer during a routine Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) cruise. Credit: Ella Cedarhold, Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences

New research published in Nature Communications Earth & Environment uses data from two sustained open-ocean hydrographic stations in the North Atlantic Ocean near Bermuda to demonstrate recent changes in ocean physics and chemistry since the 1980s. The study shows decadal variability and recent acceleration of surface warming, salinification, deoxygenation, and changes in carbon dioxide (CO2)-carbonate chemistry that drives ocean acidification.

The study utilized datasets from Hydrostation ‘S’ and the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) projects at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS). Both are led by Professor Nicholas Bates, BIOS senior scientist and the

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Bachelor Degree in Physical Science, Spearfish, USA 2020

Bachelor Degree in Physical Science

The composite major in physical science is a major designed to provide a person with broad, rigorous training in both physics and chemistry with introductory courses in the earth sciences, as well. Physical science includes the branches of natural science and sciences that study non-living systems, contrasting the biological sciences. This major is especially appropriate for persons planning to teach physics, chemistry or general science in a junior or senior high school setting. The broad knowledge base obtained from this major and the faculty involved prepares a student for graduate school in Meteorology or employment in a variety of other occupations where an understanding of chemistry, physics or mathematics is needed.

Requirements for a Physical Science major

Required Core – 26 semester hours

  • General Chemistry I & 112L (gen ed)
  • General Chemistry II & 114L (gen ed)
  • Calculus I
  • Calculus II
  • University Physics I &
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