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Large-scale sequencing of goldfish and carp reveals their origins

Large scale sequencing of goldfish and carp reveals their origins
The photo of Eggfish(left) and Wenfish(right). Wen goldfish has a fancy tail with dorsal fin, the classic type contained Fantails and Veiltails (“Wen” is also the name of the characteristic head growth on such strains as oranda and lionhead). Egg goldfish have no dorsal fin with an ‘egg-shaped’ body. Credit: Liming Qu

A large team of researchers affiliated with multiple institutions in China has sequenced the genomes of a large number of goldfish and carp, revealing much of their shared origin. They’ve published their results in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


As the researchers note, goldfish have been domesticated by humans for over 1,000 years but unlike most other domesticated species, they have not been bred for food or companionship—instead, they serve mostly an ornamental function. Because human tastes vary so widely, goldfish have likewise been bred for a whole host of features, from different coloring

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Scientists characterize four episodes of large-scale gene duplications in evolutionary past of mosses

dna
Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain

Gene duplications provide genetic raw materials and are considered as important driving forces in diversification and evolution. The evolution of land plants is characterized by recurrent ancestral paleopolyploidy events, i.e. ancestral whole genome duplications.


The duplicated genes in both the model plant Arabidopsis and rice can be traced back to five rounds of polyploidy. Bryophytes (including mosses), which branched away from other land plants almost 500 million years ago, represented a key group occupying an important phylogenetic position in land plant (embryophyte) evolution.

To resolve an accurate phylogeny of mosses and the phylogenetic positioning of ancestral genomic duplication events, researchers from the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography (XIEG) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, The Chinese University of Hong Kong and University of Missouri unveiled and characterized four episodes of large-scale gene duplications in the evolution of mosses.

The study was

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Two international samples used for large-scale study of gender differences in moral judgments within cultures

morals
Credit: CC0 Public Domain

A trio of researchers in the Department of Psychology at the University of Southern California has conducted two international sample studies to highlight gender differences in moral judgments within cultures. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Mohammad Atari, Mark Lai, and Morteza Dehghani describe their two studies and what they learned from them.


By their very nature, morals are difficult to pin down. They typically represent an individual’s perspective on what they believe to be “right” or “wrong.” Morals can also exist within groups, of course, from families, to whole countries or the entire human race. Making things even more complicated is the notion of gender differences in moral beliefs. The researchers with this new effort noted that research on this topic has generally been limited to within-culture study, or in some cases, looking at limited amounts of cross-cultural data.

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